Iran, whose official name is the Islamic Republic of Iran (in Persian, جمهوری اسلامی ایران, transliterated Ŷomhuri Eslāmi Irān, and pronounced Yomhurí-e Eslamí-e Iran:), is a State of the Middle East and Western Asia. From the 1st millennium a. C. until 1935 was known in the West as Persia, although today this name is still valid and accepted along with that of Iran. It borders Pakistan and Afghanistan in the east; Turkmenistan to the northeast, the Caspian Sea to the north and Azerbaijan and Armenia to the northwest; Turkey and Iraq to the west and finally to the coast of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south.
It is the eighteenth largest country in the world with 1 648 195 km², Iran has a population of almost 80 million people of various ethnicities. It is a country with significant importance in geopolitics to be between the Middle East and Central Asia. Tehran is the capital, as well as being the political, industrial, commercial and cultural center of the country. Iran is a regional power4 to which its large hydrocarbon reserves (fourth oil reserves and first gas reserves worldwide) 6 confer a situation of potential power superpower and have reported it for decades as a substantial oil income.
The ethnic diversity of the people of Iran, such as Persian, Kurdish, Turkish, lor, Arabic, Turkmen and Balochi, among others, are part of the Iranian culture and have provided a special attraction to this vast territory.
Iran, next to Iraq, is the home of the oldest civilizations. The first known dynasties in western Iran are those of Elam, from 2,800 BC. C. The Medes formed the first empire that encompassed the «Great Iran» in 625 a. C.8 These were succeeded by the Achaemenid Empire, Hellenized by the Seleucids after the conquest by Alexander the Great and later recentrated in autochthonous references by successive empires of the Arsacid and Sassanid births. Muslims conquer it in 651 AD C., with the result of the diffusion of the Persian language throughout the Iranian Plateau and of different aspects of the Iranian culture throughout the Islamic world.